A brief history of the general data protection regulation you can read here.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, also known as the Buckley Amendment. FERPA is a federal law that protects the privacy of student academic records.

Gramm-Leach Bliley Act. GLBA is a federal law that protects consumers’ personal financial information held by financial institutions, including universities.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. HIPAA protects the security of individually identifiable health information.


Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data 

Official Journal L 281 , 23/11/1995 P. 0031 – 0050

Strasbourg, 28/01/1981 – Treaty open for signature by the member States and for accession by non-member States

This Convention is the first binding international instrument which protects the individual against abuses which may accompany the collection and processing of personal data and which seeks to regulate at the same time the transfrontier flow of personal data.

In addition to providing guarantees in relation to the collection and processing of personal data, it outlaws the processing of „sensitive“ data on a person’s race, politics, health, religion, sexual life, criminal record, etc., in the absence of proper legal safeguards. The Convention also enshrines the individual’s right to know that information is stored on him or her and, if necessary, to have it corrected.

Restriction on the rights laid down in the Convention are only possible when overriding interests (e.g. State security, defence, etc.) are at stake.

The Convention also imposes some restrictions on transborder flows of personal data to States where legal regulation does not provide equivalent protection.

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